In total 17 Su-27M aircraft were built by Sukhoi and KnAAPO; five prototypes converted from Su-27s, two static test airframes, six pre-production test aircraft, three production aircraft, and one Su-35UB prototype. Although the Su-35 (Su-27M) had no success on the global fighter market, the Su-27M line greatly contributed to the development of the Flanker family, both in terms of aerodynamics and avionics. The Su-27M saw the introduction of canards and 3D fly-by-wire control for enhanced manoeuvrability. The final two preproduction aircraft T10M-11 and T10M-12 (bort numbers 711 and 712) tested the N011M phased-array radar. Aircraft ‘711’ went on to become the Su-37 Terminator and was soon after converted to thrust vector control (TVC) demonstrator, fitted with AL-31FU and modified FBW system
The Sukhoi Design Bureau of Moscow, Russia has developed the Su-47 (previously called the S-37 Berkut or Golden Eagle) fighter aircraft, which first flew in September 1997. Su-47 is in a forward-swept wing configuration and uses a highly unstable triplane (with three main lifting surfaces) aerodynamic configuration. The Su-47 was introduced in January 2000 and completed the first stage of flight trials in December 2001. The aircraft is operated by the Russian Air Force
In May 2002, Sukhoi was selected as prime contractor for the next-generation Russian PAK FA fighter programme. The PAK FA fighter aircraft is a development of the Su-47 but without the forward swept wings. The first flight test of the PAK FA fighter aircraft was completed on 29 January 2010.
The design of the very high manoeuvrability prototype is based on the avionics and aerodynamics technologies developed for the Su-27 upgrade programme.
Some of the systems and component designs from the Su-27, (the all weather supersonic fighter aircraft with Nato reporting name Flanker), have been used in the Su-47, for example the design of the canopy, landing gear, some of the avionics and the near-vertical tails.
The Su-47 has extremely high agility at subsonic speeds enabling the aircraft to alter its angle of attack and its flight path very quickly, and it also retains manoeuvrability in supersonic flight.The Su-47 aircraft has very high levels of manoeuvrability with maintained stability and controllability at all angles of attack.
Maximum turn rates and the upper and lower limits on air speed for weapon launch are important criteria in terms of combat superiority in close combat and also at medium and long range, when the mission may involve engaging consecutive targets in different sectors of the airspace. A high turn rate of the Su-47 allows the pilot to turn the fighter aircraft quickly towards the next target to initiate the weapon launch.
The swept-forward wing, compared to a swept-back wing of the same area, provides a number of advantages: higher lift to drag ratio; higher capacity in dogfight manoeuvres; higher range at subsonic speed; improved stall resistance and anti-spin characteristics; improved stability at high angles of attack; a lower minimum flight speed; and a shorter take-off and landing distance.
The Su-47 fuselage is oval in cross section and the airframe is constructed mainly of aluminium and titanium alloys and 13% by weight of composite materials.
The nose radome is slightly flattened at the fore section and has a horizontal edge to optimise the aircraft’s anti-spin characteristics.
The forward swept midwing gives the unusual and characteristic appearance of the Su-47. A substantial part of the lift generated by the forward-swept wing occurs at the inner portion of the wingspan. The lift is not restricted by wingtip stall. The ailerons – the wing’s control surfaces – remain effective at the highest angles of attack, and controllability of the aircraft is retained even in the event of airflow separating from the remainder of the wings’ surface.
The wing panels of the Su-47 are constructed of nearly 90% composites. The forward-swept midwing has a high aspect ratio, which contributes to long-range performance. The leading-edge root extensions blend smoothly to the wing panels, which are fitted with deflectable slats on the leading edge; flaps and ailerons on the trailing edge.
The all-moving and small-area trapezoidal canards are connected to the leading-edge root extensions.
The Su-47 experimental fighter aircraft features 14 hardpoints (2 wingtip, 6–8 underwing, 6-4 conformal underfuselage). The hardpoints are equipped with R-77, R-77PD, R-73, K-74 air to air missiles.
It is also fitted with air to surface missiles X-29T, X-29L, X-59M, X-31P, X-31A, KAB-500, KAB-1500.
The cockpit’s design has focused on maintaining a high degree of comfort for the pilot and also on the pilot being able to control the aircraft in extremely high g-load manoeuvres.
The aircraft is equipped with a new ejection seat and life support system. The variable geometry adaptive ejection seat is inclined at an angle of 60°, which reduces the impact of high G forces on the pilot. The seat allows dogfight manoeuvres with significantly higher g loadings than can normally be tolerated by the pilot.
The pilot uses a side-mounted, low-travel control stick and a tensometric throttle control.
The aircraft uses a retractable tricycle-type landing gear with a single wheel at each unit. The smaller nose wheel retracts towards the rear and the two mainwheels retract forward into the wing roots.
The Su-47 fighter aircraft is powered by two Perm Aviadvigatel D-30F6 turboshaft engines. Around 83.4kN of dry thurst can be produced by each engine. The engine is principally used in short-haul airplanes for passenger transport.
The length and fantip diameter of the engine are 3.98m and 1.05m respectively, while the dry weight and delivery weight of the engine are 1,550kg and 1,712kg respectively. The engine also features a thrust reverser and a low pressure compressor.
The Su-47 fighter aircraft can climb at a rate of 233m/s. The cruise speed is 1,800km/h. The range and service ceiling of the aircraft are 1,782nm (3,300km) and 18,000m respectively.
The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 34,000kg. The wing loading and maximum g-force of the Su-47 are 360kg/m² and 9g respectively.
source: Sukhoi and airforce-technology.com
Recently journalists had chance to visit OKB “Sukhoi” and see and look at the new training simulator designed for training pilots multipurpose fighter Su-35.
The Su-35 is a deep modernization of the Su-27 and belongs to a generation 4 ++. The aircraft is designed for air superiority, as well as to destroy air ground and surface targets.
Inside fighter Su-35 is fifth-generation technologies that provide superior fighter in its class. Distinctive differences of the Su-35 to Su-27 are new engines with increased thrust TVC, wide range of aircraft weapons, new avionics based on digital information management system and software, a new set of on-board radio-electronic equipment with a phased array radar and two-stage hydraulic drive, etc… Radar of the Su-35 can detect the type of fighter with the goal of flight efficiency dispersion in three square meters at a distance of about 400 km.
The aircraft has ultra-high maneuverability at low and near-zero rates. This capability is provided through the use of special aerodynamic design and the latest engines with thrust vector control (TVC).
OKB “Sukhoi” plans to make an training complex. It consists of an integrated simulator, procedural and educational computer class flight and engineering technical staff, who are united in a single information and methodological framework that will make all the things complex for training of pilots and engineering staff together.
The class is theoretical training with an automated control knowledge elements and are processed in a procedural simulator and then on the complex, which looks similar to origin cabin of the Su-35 fighter (closing lantern, safety harness, with a spherical dome visualization 270×110 degrees.), and it can practicing almost all kind of processes and problems.
It can be used in network so can connect up to 16 simulators and at the same time perform group training pilots. Over time, it will be possible to combine different types of exercise equipment in one information environs – training -simulator complex. In the future its planned to integrate simulators of other Russian developers.
Integrated simulator purposely is not equipped with mobility system, because the system can simulate only a small part of a large range of highly maneuverable fighter overload, and with mobility will show and display inculcate false skills.
The simulator can perform almost all the same tasks as the pilot is in the plane, including air refueling and the most important thing – testing of emergency situations. This simulator even surpasses the real plane because simulate some troubles and failures situation which are in reality very dangerous, and sometimes impossible. And this is one of the key functions of the simulator.
Workplace of the Su-35 pilot in full flight simulators is a ventilated enclosed cabin type, where there are everything necessary for comfortable combat mission.
On desk with monitors, outside the cockpit, is instructor place.
The basic controls are: Pilot control stick, engine control levers and pedals.
Information tools are collimator aviation pilot light with a control panel display, which displays flight information, two MFI-35 (multifunction display) every 15 ” control integrated system backup devices, multi-function remote display with a working field 4×5 ” helmet-mounted display system and a voice alarm system.
Multi-function board with a working field 4×5 ” is used to configure all aircraft systems, including radar sighting and navigation equipment, weapons, video recording system.
Automatic thrust control and automatic control system, allows, pilot to keep control a desired rate of movement in all maneuvers and in any conditions or fully automatically keep the aircraft on the route in accordance with the flight plan. The must-do of the pilot is reduced only to the take-off and landing tasks, as well as deciding on the use of weapons.
How we fly here?
First, the instructor make a flight scenario of the exercises with given tactical and meteorological conditions on a real map in a given area. Also, the instructor can quickly enter into a flight or cause failures and faults by monitoring the reactions of the pilot.
Workplace of the instructor is desk with multiple monitors. On the three-dimensional map shows the pivot points, the turning points of the route, and some goals. On another monitor instructor is monitoring the reaction of the pilot, authorities and management and flight parameters. On the third display is general view of the simulator, etc …
Any of the buttons, displays, conditions,…instructor have possibility to zoom in virtual on his monitor.
In fact, flight is happening by itself. The learner is in the cockpit, and the instructor at his workplace. After the training, there is debriefing.
In the photo test pilot OKB “Sukhoi” Sergey Chernyshev performs a test flight and shares his impressions with reporters.
According to Sergei, the philosophy of modern combat mission is as follows: a pilot taking off and waits until the plane automatically to reach a given point; then he decides to use of weapons in accordance with the combat mission (presses the button “defeat the enemy”), waiting until the plane comes back to the base. Thats all.
“The list of tasks to be solved and is already doing this plane is huge. It is characterized by an enormous range of altitudes and speeds, impressive range and endurance, a huge range of weapons that can be used at any time and in any weather conditions. And all these possibilities controls only one person! ”
All photos by: Marina Lystseva (http://fotografersha.livejournal.com/)
Detailed about Su-37 Terminator click HERE
Multi-Role Export Flanker
The designation Su-37 was first used to market a truly multi-role version of the Su-35 (Su-27M) to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) air force. The Su-37MR (MR for multi-role) that was offered would have French-built instrumentation equipment and a number of changes in the avionics. Sukhoi Design Bureau and KnAAPO export company selected the series produced T10M-11 (Su-27M pre-production test aircraft) for conversion, which had already been testing the multi-mode N011M phased array radar. However the UAE preferred the Mirage 2000-9 and it was decided to use the T10M-11 as flying test-bed for the engine thrust vector control (TVC) system. The Su-37 designation was retained.
Introducing Thrust Vector Control
The TVC system enables the aircraft to direct its thrust produced by the AL-31F engines in a different angle than the flight path on the vertical axis. In high angles of attack, normally an aircraft would stall and the pilot would lose control because of the disrupted airflow over the control surfaces. Also at very low air speeds, the control surfaces no longer function effectively. With TVC the aircraft can still be controlled under these circumstances by using the engines thrust instead of the airflow.
The new Su-37 made its first flight fitted with the TVC engines on 2 April 1996 by Sukhoi’s test pilot Yevgeny Frolov. The aircraft was nicknamed Terminator.
The Su-37’s TVC system is integrated into the aircraft’s fly-by-wire system, giving the aircraft controllability at beyond-critical angles of attack and near-zero speeds. The Su-37 was able of performing aerobatics unmatched by any contemporary fighter. Examples include vertical somersault while retaining the flight path (Frolov’s chakra), forced tight radius turns, controlled spin. This super-maneuverability would give the Su-37 an edge in dogfights with other aircraft. It also stunned the public at the Farnborough airshow in September 1996, Le Bourget in June 1997 and MAKS in August of 1997.
The Su-37 engine nozzles swiveled only vertically (2D vectoring). Lyulka-Saturn further developed the vectoring nozzle which resulted in the AL-31FP thrust vector control engines capable of moving in both vertical and horizontal axes (3D vectoring). The AL-31FP engine was offered to foreign customers on more advanced developments of the Su-30MK such as the Su-30MKI of the Indian Air Force and as an option for customized versions of the earlier Su-35 ‘Super’ Flanker.
End of the Su-37?
The Su-37’s life ended when T10M-11 (serial 711) was lost in a crash on flying a ferry flight in Russia. The aircraft was not fitted with the TVC engines at the time of the crash. No other Su-27Ms have been converted to Su-37 specifications, nor has the Su-37 design entered production. The Su-37 was never an official designation recognized by the Russian Air Force.
The crash of 711 effectively means the end of the Su-37 as we have known since 1996. The possibility remains that the designation Su-37 will be re-used in the future for other Flanker derivatives. Reportedly, localized Su-35 (Su-27BM) air frames for the Russian Air Force will re-use the Su-37 designation.
- Crew: 1
- Length: 21.935 m (72 ft 9 in)
- Wingspan: 14.698 m (48 ft 3 in)
- Height: 5.932 m (21 ft 1 in)
- Wing area: 62.0 m² (667 ft²)
- Empty weight: 18,500 kg (40,790 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 35,000 kg (77,160 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Lyulka AL-37FU after burning turbofans
- Dry thrust: 7,600 kgf (74.5 kN, 16,750 lbf) each
- Thrust with afterburner: 145 kN (32,000 lbf) each
- Maximum speed: Mach 2.35
- Range: 3,300 km (1,833 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 18,000 m (59,055 ft)
- Maximum g-loading: +10/−3 g
- 1 × 30 mm GSh-30 cannon with 150 rounds
- 12 × wing and fuselage stations for up to 8,000 kg (17,636 lb) of ordnance
VIdeo about Su-37 Terminator below:
Source: Wikipedia , Milavia