May 20, 1977 the first prototype designated T10-1 took off. After an evaluation it was discovered that the T10-1 did not fulfil its requirements for maximum range, and manoeuvrability, and thus proved inferior to its western counterparts. The prototype had aerodynamics problems, engine problems and fuel consumption problems. The second prototype the T10-2 crashed because of a fly-by-wire software failure which resulted in the death of the test pilot. After such disappointing results the from the T10 program Sukhoi seemed to stop T10 development, because there were no more T10 prototypes tested. They didn’t, by 1981 a new design was introduced loosely based on the old T10. The new aircraft was designated T10S which was to become what today is known as the Su27 Flanker. The T10S prototype flew on April 20, 1981. The T10S showed it self to be a masterpiece of engineering having no equal anywhere in the world in range, manoeuvrability, and combat effectiveness.
The Su-27, a Russian fourth-generation single-seat supersonic fighter, is recognised all over the globe as one of the best combat aircraft of the 20th century. Due to its perfect flight performances and operational characteristics, the fighter is rightfully popular with pilots and technicians. Top piloting capabilities of the Su-27 fighter demonstrated during multiple air shows around the world did not leave anyone indifferent. The Su-27 is in the top lines of the aviation record tables of the International
Aircraft Federation. To the date, the Su-27 is a record-holder of 27 world class flight achievements. The Su-27 is the forefather of a combat aircraft family of various functionality, including the Su-27UB trainer, Su-27K ship-borne fighter (Su-33), Su-30 twin-seat interceptor, Su-30MK twin-seat multirole fighter, Su-34 tactical bombers Su-35, Su-37 Su-35BM and other high-manoeuvrability multirole aircraft.
More about T-10 prototype click HERE
The Sukhoi Design Bureau of Moscow, Russia has developed the Su-47 (previously called the S-37 Berkut or Golden Eagle) fighter aircraft, which first flew in September 1997. Su-47 is in a forward-swept wing configuration and uses a highly unstable triplane (with three main lifting surfaces) aerodynamic configuration. The Su-47 was introduced in January 2000 and completed the first stage of flight trials in December 2001. The aircraft is operated by the Russian Air Force
In May 2002, Sukhoi was selected as prime contractor for the next-generation Russian PAK FA fighter programme. The PAK FA fighter aircraft is a development of the Su-47 but without the forward swept wings. The first flight test of the PAK FA fighter aircraft was completed on 29 January 2010.
The design of the very high manoeuvrability prototype is based on the avionics and aerodynamics technologies developed for the Su-27 upgrade programme.
Some of the systems and component designs from the Su-27, (the all weather supersonic fighter aircraft with Nato reporting name Flanker), have been used in the Su-47, for example the design of the canopy, landing gear, some of the avionics and the near-vertical tails.
The Su-47 has extremely high agility at subsonic speeds enabling the aircraft to alter its angle of attack and its flight path very quickly, and it also retains manoeuvrability in supersonic flight.The Su-47 aircraft has very high levels of manoeuvrability with maintained stability and controllability at all angles of attack.
Maximum turn rates and the upper and lower limits on air speed for weapon launch are important criteria in terms of combat superiority in close combat and also at medium and long range, when the mission may involve engaging consecutive targets in different sectors of the airspace. A high turn rate of the Su-47 allows the pilot to turn the fighter aircraft quickly towards the next target to initiate the weapon launch.
The swept-forward wing, compared to a swept-back wing of the same area, provides a number of advantages: higher lift to drag ratio; higher capacity in dogfight manoeuvres; higher range at subsonic speed; improved stall resistance and anti-spin characteristics; improved stability at high angles of attack; a lower minimum flight speed; and a shorter take-off and landing distance.
The Su-47 fuselage is oval in cross section and the airframe is constructed mainly of aluminium and titanium alloys and 13% by weight of composite materials.
The nose radome is slightly flattened at the fore section and has a horizontal edge to optimise the aircraft’s anti-spin characteristics.
The forward swept midwing gives the unusual and characteristic appearance of the Su-47. A substantial part of the lift generated by the forward-swept wing occurs at the inner portion of the wingspan. The lift is not restricted by wingtip stall. The ailerons – the wing’s control surfaces – remain effective at the highest angles of attack, and controllability of the aircraft is retained even in the event of airflow separating from the remainder of the wings’ surface.
The wing panels of the Su-47 are constructed of nearly 90% composites. The forward-swept midwing has a high aspect ratio, which contributes to long-range performance. The leading-edge root extensions blend smoothly to the wing panels, which are fitted with deflectable slats on the leading edge; flaps and ailerons on the trailing edge.
The all-moving and small-area trapezoidal canards are connected to the leading-edge root extensions.
The Su-47 experimental fighter aircraft features 14 hardpoints (2 wingtip, 6–8 underwing, 6-4 conformal underfuselage). The hardpoints are equipped with R-77, R-77PD, R-73, K-74 air to air missiles.
It is also fitted with air to surface missiles X-29T, X-29L, X-59M, X-31P, X-31A, KAB-500, KAB-1500.
The cockpit’s design has focused on maintaining a high degree of comfort for the pilot and also on the pilot being able to control the aircraft in extremely high g-load manoeuvres.
The aircraft is equipped with a new ejection seat and life support system. The variable geometry adaptive ejection seat is inclined at an angle of 60°, which reduces the impact of high G forces on the pilot. The seat allows dogfight manoeuvres with significantly higher g loadings than can normally be tolerated by the pilot.
The pilot uses a side-mounted, low-travel control stick and a tensometric throttle control.
The aircraft uses a retractable tricycle-type landing gear with a single wheel at each unit. The smaller nose wheel retracts towards the rear and the two mainwheels retract forward into the wing roots.
The Su-47 fighter aircraft is powered by two Perm Aviadvigatel D-30F6 turboshaft engines. Around 83.4kN of dry thurst can be produced by each engine. The engine is principally used in short-haul airplanes for passenger transport.
The length and fantip diameter of the engine are 3.98m and 1.05m respectively, while the dry weight and delivery weight of the engine are 1,550kg and 1,712kg respectively. The engine also features a thrust reverser and a low pressure compressor.
The Su-47 fighter aircraft can climb at a rate of 233m/s. The cruise speed is 1,800km/h. The range and service ceiling of the aircraft are 1,782nm (3,300km) and 18,000m respectively.
The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 34,000kg. The wing loading and maximum g-force of the Su-47 are 360kg/m² and 9g respectively.
source: Sukhoi and airforce-technology.com
T-10 Flanker A
Everything began at Sukhoi Bureau ending 1969. SSSR (USSR) needs some air superiority fighter to catch up USA FX program F-15 which started 1966.
Prototype of the Su-27, factory code T-10 was finished September 1971. After concept was presented, Soviet Air Force heads decided to go parallel with two designs. One by Mikoyan lighter version (now well known Mig-29 Fulcrum), and heavier by Sukhoi.
Development of the Su-27 was approved by Soviet government in 1976., so Sukhoi started to build first three T-10 prototypes (two for flight testing and one for structural testing). The first two flying prototypes of the Su-27 were fitted with AL-21FZAI engines.
Construction of the first prototype T10-1 was completed in April 1977. On 20 May 1977, the design bureau’s chief pilot V.S. Ilyushin performed the first flight. In May 1978, the testing programme was expanded to cover a second prototype, T10-2, and the year after that, in 1979, it received the prototypes T10-3 and T10-4, fitted with operational engines AL-31F. This was the first “unstable” fly-by-wire aircraft in the Soviet Union.
In the summer of 1977, after Sukhoi’s chief pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union Vladimir Sergeyevich Ilyushin, made the first flight in the T-10, and testing began. All went well, and 10 more aircraft were begun.
The second prototype T-10-2 was built in 1978, but it was destroyed on its second flight and the pilot was killed. The cause was shortcomings in the control system.
The same year Sukhoi built a third and a fourth prototype T-10-3 and T-10-4. They received new AL-31F engines, but the stability problems continued. Five new prototypes were built for expanded test flight program T-10-5, -6, -9, -10, -11. The seventh and the eight versions were kept on the drawing board waiting for possible changes. During the next four years the Su-27 underwent extensive redesign program under Mikhail Simonov’s supervision, which resulted in the T-10S, developed from the T-10-7.
The T-10S was lost in an accident on September 3, 1981. The second T-10S came from the production line with designation T-10-12 and with new airframe structure. That prototype was lost too, on December 23, 1981. The plane broke down in a high-speed test and the pilot was killed. The T-10-8 prototype was assembled in 1982 to be used in strength tests. Thus the total number of aircraft in the test program rose to 14.
The T-10S prototype evolved into the production version Su-27P during the year 1985, when it was introduced to service. Sukhoi manufactured about 200 such planes for the Air Defense Force.
The radar is coherent RLPK27pulse-doppler radar, which is able to track 10 targets and engage 2 targets simultaneously. Geophysica NPO optical-electronic system supplements the radar. The system’s laser rangefinder has 8 km range and the IR finder’s detection range extends to as far as 50 km, depending on the IR contrast. The electro-optical system can be connected to the pilot’s helmet sight.
As compared to the MiG-29, the benefits of the Su-27 in terms of operation range and useful load were evident. Thus the FrontalAviation soon directed its interest to the new aircraft and had ordered about 150 examples by the beginning of the 1990s.