Sat Sr-10 – Prototype Jet Trainer

The KB SAT SR-10 is a prototype Russian single-engine jet trainer aircraft, fitted with forward-swept wings. It first flew in 2015, and is being offered to the Russian Air Force and for export.

The Russian design bureau KB SAT (Sovremyenne Aviatsyonne Tekhnologii – Modern Aircraft Technologies) began work on a single-engine jet trainer and sport aircraft, the SR-10, in 2007, displaying a mockup at the MAKS airshow at Zhukovsky in August 2009. The SR-10 is a mid-wing monoplane of all-composite construction, with a wing swept forward at an angle of 10 degrees. The crew of two sit in a tandem cockpit. It is powered by a single turbofan, with a Ivchenko AI-25V fitted in the prototype, but more modern Russian engines, such as the NPO Saturn AL-55 are proposed for production aircraft.

The SR-10 was offered to meet a 2014 requirement for a basic trainer for the Russian Air force, but was rejected in favour of the Yakovlev Yak-152, a proposed turboprop trainer. Despite this setback, KB SAT continued to develop the SR-10, proposing it as an intermediate trainer between the Yak-152 and the Yakovlev Yak-130 advanced trainer and for export. The first prototype SR-10 made its maiden flight on 25 December 2015.

General characteristics

Crew: 2
Length: 9.59 m (31 ft 6 in)
Wingspan: 8.40 m (27 ft 7 in)
Height: 3.55 m (11 ft 8 in)
Gross weight: 2,400 kg (5,291 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 2,700 kg (5,952 lb)
Powerplant: 1 × Ivchenko AI-25V turbofan, 16.87 kN (3,790 lbf) thrust


Maximum speed: 900 km/h (559 mph; 486 kn)
Cruise speed: 520 km/h (323 mph; 281 kn)
Range: 1,500 km (932 mi; 810 nmi)
Service ceiling: 6,000 m (20,000 ft)
g limits: +10/-8
Rate of climb: 60 m/s (12,000 ft/min)


About Yakovlev Yak-141 “Freestyle”

The Yakovlev Yak-141 (Яковлева Як-141; NATO reporting name “Freestyle”), also known as the Yak-41, was a supersonic vertical takeoff/landing(VTOL) fighter aircraft designed by Yakovlev. It was used for testing.

Freestyle was first supersonic VTOL aircraft in the world. 

Yak-141 has three engines. The main engine was served by four side-mounted ducts as well as a row of large louvers along the upper surface to allow air to enter the engine during full power hovering. This engine was the R-79V-300, a two-shaft augmented turbofan with a bypass ratio of 1. Maximum thrust was 14,000 kg (30,864 lb). The rear nozzle could rotate from 0 degrees to 95 degrees for VTOL landing and hovering. The two lift engines were the RD-41 design, a simple single-shaft engine made mostly of titanium. Each had a thrust of 4,100 kg (9,040 lb). The engines were installed behind the cockpit at an angle of 85 degrees. Like the Yak-38, the engines received their air through eight spring-operated dorsal flaps, and the exhaust exited through a belly opening covered by two ventral doors.


Yakovlev obtained funding for four prototypes. The first (48-0, with no callsign) was a bare airframe for static and fatigue testing. The second (48-1, call sign “48”) was a non-flying powerplant testbed. The third and fourth (48-2 and 48-3, call signs “75” and “77”) were for flight testing. While 48-1 remained unpainted, 48-2 and 48-3 were painted in overall grey, with a black radome and fin cap antennas.


Someone can say F-35 is a copy of Yak-141, and there is some truth. Lockheed was involved in this project, believe or not. Yakovlev stayed without funds to test more prototypes like Yak-41M, so they called few foreign companies to help them. Lockheed corporation (U.S.A.) was in the process of developing the X-35 for the US Joint Strike Fighter program then, so it was good for both sides to join knowledge and experience.

With Lockheed assistance, Yak-141 prototype 48-2 was displayed at the Farnborough Airshow in September 1992. Yakovlev announced that they had reached an agreement with Lockheed for funds of $385 to $400 million for three new prototypes and an additional static test aircraft to test improvements in design and avionics. Planned modifications for the proposed Yak-41M included an increase in STOL weight to 21,500 kg (47,400 lb). One of the prototypes would have been a dual-control trainer. Though no longer flyable, both 48-2 and 48-3 were exhibited at the 1993 Moscow airshow. The partnership began in late 1991, though it was not publicly revealed by Yakovlev until 6 September 1992, and was not revealed by Lockheed until June 1994.

Soviet supersonic VTOL Yak-41(141).

First flight of the Yak-141 was on 9 March 1987, program canceled in August 1991.

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 18.36 m (60 ft 2¼ in)
  • Wingspan: 10.105 m (33 ft 1½ in)
  • Height: 5.00 m (16 ft 5 in)
  • Wing area: 31.7 m² (341 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 11,650 kg (25,683 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 19,500 kg (42,989 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Soyuz R-79V-300 ( ru) lift/cruise turbofan
    • Dry thrust: 108 kN (24,300 lbf)
    • Thrust with afterburner: 152 kN (34,170 lbf)
  • Lift engines: 2x RKBM RD-41 (ru) turbojets 41.7 kN (9,300 lbf) thrust each)



  • Maximum speed: 1,800 km/h (1,118 mph, Mach 1.4+)
  • Range: 2,100 km (1,305 mi)
  • Ferry range: 3,000 km (1,865 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 15,500 m (50,853 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 250m/s (15,000 m/min) (49,213 ft/min)


  • Guns: 1 × 30 mm GSh-301 cannon with 120 rounds
  • Hardpoints: 4 underwing and 1 fuselage hardpoints with a capacity of 2,600 kg (5,733 lb) of external stores and provisions to carry combinations of:
    • Missiles: R-73 Archer, R-77 Adder or R-27 Alamo air-to-air missiles


Su-35 (Su-27M) photos and short description

In total 17 Su-27M aircraft were built by Sukhoi and KnAAPO; five prototypes converted from Su-27s, two static test airframes, six pre-production test aircraft, three production aircraft, and one Su-35UB prototype. Although the Su-35 (Su-27M) had no success on the global fighter market, the Su-27M line greatly contributed to the development of the Flanker family, both in terms of aerodynamics and avionics. The Su-27M saw the introduction of canards and 3D fly-by-wire control for enhanced manoeuvrability. The final two preproduction aircraft T10M-11 and T10M-12 (bort numbers 711 and 712) tested the N011M phased-array radar. Aircraft ‘711’ went on to become the Su-37 Terminator and was soon after converted to thrust vector control (TVC) demonstrator, fitted with AL-31FU and modified FBW system





Su-35 demonstrator 709 displays a mix of R-27 Alamo and R-77 Adder BVR missiles (KnAAPO)


Su-47 (S-37 Berkut) Golden Eagle Fighter

The Sukhoi Design Bureau of Moscow, Russia has developed the Su-47 (previously called the S-37 Berkut or Golden Eagle) fighter aircraft, which first flew in September 1997. Su-47 is in a forward-swept wing configuration and uses a highly unstable triplane (with three main lifting surfaces) aerodynamic configuration. The Su-47 was introduced in January 2000 and completed the first stage of flight trials in December 2001. The aircraft is operated by the Russian Air Force

Su-47 Berkut

Su-47 Berkut

In May 2002, Sukhoi was selected as prime contractor for the next-generation Russian PAK FA fighter programme. The PAK FA fighter aircraft is a development of the Su-47 but without the forward swept wings. The first flight test of the PAK FA fighter aircraft was completed on 29 January 2010.

The design of the very high manoeuvrability prototype is based on the avionics and aerodynamics technologies developed for the Su-27 upgrade programme.

Some of the systems and component designs from the Su-27, (the all weather supersonic fighter aircraft with Nato reporting name Flanker), have been used in the Su-47, for example the design of the canopy, landing gear, some of the avionics and the near-vertical tails.


The Su-47 has extremely high agility at subsonic speeds enabling the aircraft to alter its angle of attack and its flight path very quickly, and it also retains manoeuvrability in supersonic flight.The Su-47 aircraft has very high levels of manoeuvrability with maintained stability and controllability at all angles of attack.

Maximum turn rates and the upper and lower limits on air speed for weapon launch are important criteria in terms of combat superiority in close combat and also at medium and long range, when the mission may involve engaging consecutive targets in different sectors of the airspace. A high turn rate of the Su-47 allows the pilot to turn the fighter aircraft quickly towards the next target to initiate the weapon launch.

“The Su-47 has extremely high agility at subsonic speeds.”

The swept-forward wing, compared to a swept-back wing of the same area, provides a number of advantages: higher lift to drag ratio; higher capacity in dogfight manoeuvres; higher range at subsonic speed; improved stall resistance and anti-spin characteristics; improved stability at high angles of attack; a lower minimum flight speed; and a shorter take-off and landing distance.



Su-47 fuselage

The Su-47 fuselage is oval in cross section and the airframe is constructed mainly of aluminium and titanium alloys and 13% by weight of composite materials.

The nose radome is slightly flattened at the fore section and has a horizontal edge to optimise the aircraft’s anti-spin characteristics.

Forward-swept wings

The forward swept midwing gives the unusual and characteristic appearance of the Su-47. A substantial part of the lift generated by the forward-swept wing occurs at the inner portion of the wingspan. The lift is not restricted by wingtip stall. The ailerons – the wing’s control surfaces – remain effective at the highest angles of attack, and controllability of the aircraft is retained even in the event of airflow separating from the remainder of the wings’ surface.

The wing panels of the Su-47 are constructed of nearly 90% composites. The forward-swept midwing has a high aspect ratio, which contributes to long-range performance. The leading-edge root extensions blend smoothly to the wing panels, which are fitted with deflectable slats on the leading edge; flaps and ailerons on the trailing edge.

The all-moving and small-area trapezoidal canards are connected to the leading-edge root extensions.



The Su-47 experimental fighter aircraft features 14 hardpoints (2 wingtip, 6–8 underwing, 6-4 conformal underfuselage). The hardpoints are equipped with R-77, R-77PD, R-73, K-74 air to air missiles.

It is also fitted with air to surface missiles X-29T, X-29L, X-59M, X-31P, X-31A, KAB-500, KAB-1500.

Click to enlarge


The cockpit’s design has focused on maintaining a high degree of comfort for the pilot and also on the pilot being able to control the aircraft in extremely high g-load manoeuvres.

“The wing panels of the Su-47 are constructed of nearly 90% composites.”

The aircraft is equipped with a new ejection seat and life support system. The variable geometry adaptive ejection seat is inclined at an angle of 60°, which reduces the impact of high G forces on the pilot. The seat allows dogfight manoeuvres with significantly higher g loadings than can normally be tolerated by the pilot.

The pilot uses a side-mounted, low-travel control stick and a tensometric throttle control.


Landing gear

The aircraft uses a retractable tricycle-type landing gear with a single wheel at each unit. The smaller nose wheel retracts towards the rear and the two mainwheels retract forward into the wing roots.



The Su-47 fighter aircraft is powered by two Perm Aviadvigatel D-30F6 turboshaft engines. Around 83.4kN of dry thurst can be produced by each engine. The engine is principally used in short-haul airplanes for passenger transport.

The length and fantip diameter of the engine are 3.98m and 1.05m respectively, while the dry weight and delivery weight of the engine are 1,550kg and 1,712kg respectively. The engine also features a thrust reverser and a low pressure compressor.

Su-47 performance

The Su-47 fighter aircraft can climb at a rate of 233m/s. The cruise speed is 1,800km/h. The range and service ceiling of the aircraft are 1,782nm (3,300km) and 18,000m respectively.

The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 34,000kg. The wing loading and maximum g-force of the Su-47 are 360kg/m² and 9g respectively.


source: Sukhoi and


Negotiations with India to supply Su-27 type fighters started in 1994. The Design Bureau commenced work to develop a Su-30-based plane for India’s Air Force in 1995. A.F. Barkovsky was appointed chief designer of the project. On 30th November 1996 an intergovernmental agreement was made for phased development and delivery to India of 8 Su-30K two-seat fighters and 32 Su-30MKI multi-role two-seat fighters. The planes were scheduled for delivery in several consignments, with gradual enhancement of avionics, powerplant and weapons. The general contractors, according to a government resolution, were:

– for aeroplane development: Sukhoi Design Bureau OJSC (now JSC),
– for aeroplane production: Irkutsk Aircraft Production Association (IAPA, now Irkut Corporation).

Sukhoi_Su-30MK_on_the_MAKS-2009_(02)Two prototypes were built by the Design Bureau in 1995-1998. The first prototype, Su-30I-1, was based on the Su-30 production version, the prototype completed in the spring of 1997. The first flight was performed by test pilot V.Yu. Averyanov on 1st July 1997. In July 1997, the Design Bureau launched a program to test the plane jointly with SPFC of the Air Forces.

The aircraft has been in production in Irkutsk since 2000. The first pre-production plane was flight tested at the plant by V.Yu. Averyanov on 26th November 2000. The first three pre-production Su-30MKIs were handed over to the Design Bureau and have been used along with prototypes in the joint-testing programme with SPFC of Air Forces.

In accordance with the terms of the contract, the Su-30MKI planes were to be tested and delivered in 3 stages. The first delivery of 10 Su-30MKIs to the Customer took place in 2002; the second batch of 12 aeroplanes, in 2003. By 2004, the Su-30K and Su-30MKI planes had been put into service with two squadrons of India’s Air Force.

The Su-30MKI’s distinctive features:
– for the first time in the world, a production aircraft has an engine with thrust vector control (AL-31FP, developed by the RDC named after A. Lyulka), and a remote control system integrated into a single control loop. Taken together, this renders the Su-30MKI extremely manoeuvrable;
– for the first time in the Design Bureau’s history, a plane features a large-scale integration of avionics systems of foreign and domestic origin. The Su-30MKI has an “international” avionics portfolio, including as it does systems and units made by 14 foreign firms from 6 countries of the world.
– For the first time in the world, a production plane has a radar with PAA (“Bars” developed by the Scientific Research Institute of Instrumentation Technology). Moreover, the plane has a new ejection seat, the K-36D-3.5, and a number of other innovative systems of domestic origin.
– The ADO line-up has been significantly upgraded with the addition of the RVV-AYe air-to-air guided missile, Kh-29L/T/TYe, Kh-31A/P, Kh-59M air-to-ground missiles, and KAB-500 and KAB-1500 guided bombs.

Indian Su-30MKI

Indian Su-30MKI

The Su-30MKI program has for the first time in Russian history showcased a new model for military-technical cooperation incorporating all types of long-term cooperation currently practiced in the world such as:

– delivery of the first consignment of products in the baseline version (Su-30K),
– joint R&D to produce an upgraded version (Su-30MKI),
– granting the customer a licence to manufacture with subsequent replacement of Russian-made components with those of foreign origin (in December 2000, a contract was signed to sell to India a licence to manufacture 140 Su-30MKI planes of the final delivery group),
– upgrading of the planes from the first deliveries to the technical status of the final delivery group,
– setting up of a joint technical service centre for aftersales maintenance of the equipment supplied,
– using the «export beachhead» to expand into the regional market (in 2003, a contract was made to supply Su-30MKM planes to Malaysia).

Malaysian Su-30MKM

Malaysian Su-30MKM

The Design Bureau started work to produce a Su-30-based two-seat attack aircraft designated Su-30MKK for China’s Air Forces in 1997, A.I. Knyshev having been appointed chief designer of the project. Under the contract, the Komsomolsk-on-Amur production plant (KnAAPO) was named as the general contractor. The Design Bureau produced a detailed design in 1997-98; the prototype planes were made in Komsomolsk-on-Amur in 1998-99.

Su-30 mka 77

Algerian AF Su-30MKA


The new version of the two-seater was based to a great extent on the design solutions adopted for the Su-27SK and the single-seat fighter Su-27M. As a result, the Su-30MKK incorporated, for all intents and purposes without any redesign, the Su-27M’s centre wing section, wing panels, air intakes, tail beams, fins and landing gear and the Su-27SK’s tail-end fuselage assemblies. This way, the design scope was reduced dramatically, without any new components required for building the aircraft except for the nose. Besides, the production plant had already gained experience in setting up production of a two-seat trainer at the beginning of the ’80s.

Su-30MKK operated by a PLAAF opposing force (OPFOR) unit in special desert camouflage colour

Su-30MKK operated by a PLAAF opposing force (OPFOR) unit in special desert camouflage colour

The first prototype was built in the spring of 1999, the Su-30MKK-1 having been taken off the ground for its maiden flight on 20th May 1999 by test pilots I.Ye. Solovyov (Design Bureau) and A.V. Pulenko (KnAAPO). The first four pre-production planes were handed over to the Design Bureau for testing. The testing was conducted jointly with SPFC of the Air Forces in 1999-2001, with the first 10 production Su-30MKK planes delivered to the customer in December 2000.

Venezuelan Su-30MK2 - Fuerza Aérea Venezolana-FAV

Venezuelan Su-30MK2 – Fuerza Aérea Venezolana-FAV

Su-30MKK design highlights:

– The plane features upgraded equipment of Russian manufacture, which includes a new version of radar with target designation and mapping capabilities; OSTS with target illumination using a laser beam; a GPS system, and a coloured multi-function LCDs in the cockpit, etc.;
– The ADO line-up has been upgraded with the addition of RVV-AYe air-to-air guided missile; Kh-29L/T/TYe, Kh-31P, Kh-59M air-to-ground missiles; and KAB-500 and KAB-1500 guided bombs. The Su-30MKK has been used as a platform to produce an upgraded version, the Su-30MK2, which differs from the parent version in its weapons and equipment systems configuration; planes of this type were been supplied to China in 2003. In addition, Su-30MK type aeroplanes were supplied to Indonesia in 2003.


Indonesian AF Su-30 TNI AU


Aircraft performance
Takeoff weight:  
     – normal (including rockets 2xR-27R1 + 2xR-73E, 5270 kg fuel), kg 24,900*
     – maximum, kg 34,500
     – max, kg 38,800
Maximum landing weight, kg 23,600
Max landing weight, kg 30,000
Maximum internal fuel, kg 9,640
Normal internal fuel, kg 5,270
Maximum ordnance, kg 8,000
Service ceiling (without external ordnance and stores), km 17.3
Maximum flight speed at sea level (without external ordnance and stores), km/h 1,350
Max Mach (without external ordnance and stores) 2.00 (1.9**)
G-limit (operational) 9
Maximum flight range (with rockets 2xR-27R1, 2xR-73E launched at half distance):  
     – at sea level, km 1,270
     – at height, km 3,000
     – with one refuelling (at 1.500 kg fuel remaining), km 5,200
     – with two refuellings in flight, km 8,000
Maximum airborne time (pilot-dependent), hours 10
Takeoff run at normal takeoff weight, m 550
Landing run at normal landing weight (with braking parachute), m 750
Aeroplane dimensions:  
     – length, m 21.9
     – wingspan, m 14.7
     – height, m 6.4
Crew 2
In-flight refuelling system
Maximum flow rate (at entry pressure of 3.5 kg/cm 2), l/min 1,100
Number and type of engines 2 x AL-31F (2 x AL-31FP***)
Thrust in afterburner, kgf 12,500 -2 %
     1. Fire control system  
          1.1. Air-to-air fire control system  
               1.1.1. Search and track radar  
               1.1.2. IRST and laser rangefinder  
           Optical search and track station  
           Helmet-mounted target designator  
               1.1.3. Wide-angle HUD  
               1.1.4. IFF system interrogator  
          1.2. Air-to-surface fire control system  
               1.2.1. Coloured multi-purpose LCD indicators  
               1.2.2. Onboard digital computer  
               1.2.3. GPS satellite-based navigation system  
               1.2.4. Weapons control system  
     2. Aeroplane remote control system  
     3. IFF system transponder  
     4. Antenna feed system  
     5. Flight navigation system  
          5.1. Digital computer  
          5.2. Attitude and heading reference system  
          5.3. Short-range radiotechnical navigation system  
          5.4. GPS system  
          5.5. Autopilot system  
          5.6. Altitude and speed data processing and display system  
          5.7. Air data system  
     6. Electronic countermeasure equipment  
          6.1. Radar warning receiver with an expansion block  
          6.2. Chaff and heat flare dispenser  
          6.3. Radio jamming transmitter (in pod)  
     7. Communications system  
          7.1. VHF and UHF band communications transceiver  
          7.2. VHF and UHF band communications transceiver  
          7.3. SW band radio communications transceiver  
     8. Onboard automatic control system  
          8.1. Integrated onboard control and crew warning system  
          8.2. Flight information recording equipment  
          8.3. Onboard emergency situation warning equipment  
     9. Video recording system  
          9.1. Onboard video recorder  
          9.2. Forward vision video camera  
          9.3. Video controller  
     10. Aircraft responder  
     11. Telecommand homing system  
     12. Pod-type IRST and laser rangefinder
Aircraft limit:  
     – SLL, hours 3,000
     – to first overhaul, hours 1,500
     – service life, years 25
Engine and outboard accessory-gearbox life:  
     – to first overhaul, hours 500
     – service life limit, hours 1,500
*May vary depending on the equipment configuration installed upon customer's request 
**With canard surfaces installed 
***With thrust vector control engine installed
1. Guns Onboard 30mm gun with 150 rds
2. Guided air-to-air missiles R-27R1(ER1) R-27T1(ET1) R-27P(EP) R-73E RVV-AYe
3. Guided air-to-surface missiles Kh-59ME Kh-31A, Kh-31P Kh-29T(TYe), Kh-29L
4. Guided bomb units KAB-500KR, KAB-500OD KAB-1500KR, KAB-1500L
5. Air bombs FAB-500T BETAB-500ShP ODAB-500PM OFAB-250-270 OFAB-100-120 P-50T Incendiary bombs
6. Cluster bombs RBK-500 SPBE-D
7. Unguided missiles S-8KOM, S-8OM, S-8BM S-13T, S-13OF S-25OFM-PU
8. External fuel tanks N/a
9. Suspension points 12

Source: Sukhoi

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